Biosphere reserves in India - Geography for You

Biosphere reserves in India

The total number of Biosphere reserves in India is 18. The World Network of Biosphere Reserves of the MAB Programme consists of a dynamic and interactive network of sites of excellence.

There are 669 biosphere reserves in 120 countries, including 20 transboundary sites. Biosphere reserves are areas comprising terrestrial, marine and coastal ecosystems. The first biosphere reserve of the world was established in 1979.

➽ List of biosphere reserves by regions
1. Africa: 75 biosphere reserves in 28 countries
2. Arab States: 31 biosphere reserves in 11 countries
3. Asia and the Pacific: 147 biosphere reserves in 24 countries
4. Europe & North America: 287 biosphere reserves in 36 countries
5. Latin America and the Caribbean: 129 biosphere reserves in 21 countries

➽ Zones in Biosphere Reserve
Biosphere reserves have three interrelated zones that aim to fulfill three complementary and mutually reinforcing functions:
Zones in Biosphere Reserve
➥ The core area(s) comprises a strictly protected ecosystem that contributes to the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variation.

➥ The buffer zone surrounds or adjoins the core areas, and is used for activities compatible with sound ecological practices that can reinforce scientific research, monitoring, training, and education.

➥ The transition area is the part of the reserve where the greatest activity is allowed, fostering economic and human development that is socio-culturally and ecologically sustainable.

List of Biosphere Reserves of India

1. Cold Desert  
➧Date of Notification-28.08.2009
➧Area (In Km2)- 7770

➧Type- Western Himalayas           
➧Location- Pin Valley National Park and surroundings; Chandratal and Sarchu&Kibber Wildlife ➧Sanctuary in Himachal Pradesh.
➧Key Fauna- Snow Leopard

2 Nanda Devi    
➧Date of Notification-18.01.1988
➧Area (In Km2)- 5860.69 (Core 712.12, Buffer 5,148.570) & T. 546.34)
➧Type- Western Himalayas           
➧Location- Part of Chamoli, Pithoragarh, and Bageshwar districts (Uttarakhand).

Biosphere reserves in India

3. Khangchendzonga
➧Date of Notification-07.02.2000
➧Area (In Km2)- 2619.92 (Core 1819.34 & Buffer 835.92)
➧Type- East Himalayas
➧Location- Parts of Khangchendzonga hills and Sikkim.
➧Key Fauna- Snow Leopard, Red Panda

4. Dehang-Dibang
➧Date of Notification-02.09.1998
➧Area (In Km2)- 5111.50 (Core 4094.80 &Buffer 1016.70)
➧Type- Eastern Himalaya
➧Location- Part of Siang and Dibang Valley in Arunachal Pradesh.

5. Manas 
➧Date of Notification-14.03.1989
➧Area (In Km2)- 2837 (Core 391 & Buffer 2,446)
➧Type- East Himalayas     
➧Location- Part of Kokrajhar, Bongaigaon, Barpeta, Nalbari, Kamprup and Darang districts (Assam).
➧Key Fauna- Golden Langur, Red Panda

6. Nokrek
➧Date of Notification-01.09.1988
➧Area (In Km2)- 820 (Core 47.48 & Buffer 227.92, Transition Zone 544.60)
➧Type- East Himalayas     
➧Location- Part of Garo hills (Meghalaya).
➧Key Fauna- Red Panda

7. Dibru-Saikhowa               
➧Date of Notification-28.07.1997
➧Area (In Km2)- 765 (Core 340 & Buffer 425)
➧Type- East Himalayas     
➧Location- Part of Dibrugarh and Tinsukia Districts (Assam).
➧Key Fauna- Golden Langur

8. Panna  
➧Date of Notification- 25.08.2011
➧Area (In Km2)- 2998.98
➧Type- Ken River               
➧Location- Part of Panna and Chhattarpur districts in Madhya Pradesh.
➧Key Fauna- Tiger, Chital, Chinkara, Sambhar and Sloth bear

9. Kachchh              
➧Date of Notification-29.01.2008
➧Area (In Km2)- 12,454 km2
➧Type- Desert     
➧Location- Part of Kachchh, Rajkot, Surendra Nagar and Patan Civil Districts of Gujarat State.
➧Key Fauna- Indian Wild Ass

10. Pachmarhi          
➧Date of Notification-03.03.1999
➧Area (In Km2)- 4926
➧Type- Semi-Arid              
➧Location- Parts of Betul, Hoshangabad and Chindwara districts of Madhya Pradesh.
Key Fauna- Giant Squirrel, Flying Squirrel

11. Achanakamar –    Amarkantak   
➧Date of Notification-30.3.2005   
➧Area (In Km2)- 3835.51 (Core 551.55 & Buffer  3283.86)
➧Type-  Maikala Hills         
➧Location- Covers parts of Anupur and Dindori districts of M.P. and parts of Bilaspur districts of Chhattisgarh State.

12. Sunderbans       
➧Date of Notification-29.03.1989
➧Area (In Km2)- 9630 (Core 1700 & Buffer  7900)
➧Type-  Gangetic Delta    
➧Location- Part of the delta of Ganges and Brahmaputra river system (West Bengal).
➧Key Fauna- Royal Bengal Tiger

13. Simlipal
➧Date of Notification-21.06.1994
➧Area (In Km2)- 4374 (Core 845, Buffer 2129 & Transition 1400
➧Type- Deccan Peninsula               
➧Location- Part of Mayurbhanj district (Orissa).
➧Key Fauna- Gaur, Royal Bengal Tiger, Wild elephant

14. Seshachalam Hills            
➧Date of Notification-20.09.2010
➧Area (In Km2)- 4755.997
➧Type- Eastern Ghats      
➧Location-  Seshachalam Hill Ranges covering parts of Chittoor and Kadapa districts of Andhra Pradesh.

15. Nilgiri    
➧Date of Notification-01.09.1986
➧Area (In Km2)- 5520 (Core 1240 & Buffer 4280)
➧Type- Western Ghats
➧Location- Part of Wayanad, Nagarhole, Bandipur and Madumalai, Nilambur, Silent Valley and ➧Siruvani hills (Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka).
➧Key Fauna-  Nilgiri Tahr, Lion-tailed macaque

16. Agasthyamalai  
➧Date of Notification-12.11.2001
➧Area (In Km2)- 1828
➧Type- Western Ghats     
➧Location-  Neyyar, Peppara and Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuaries and their adjoining areas in Kerala.
➧Key Fauna-  Nilgiri Tahr, Elephants

17. Gulf of Mannar
➧Date of Notification-18.02.1989
➧Area (In Km2)- 10,500 km2 Total Gulf area (area of Islands 5.55 km2)
➧Type- Coasts     
➧Location- Indian part of Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka (Tamil Nadu).
➧Key Fauna- Dugong or Sea Cow

18. Great Nicobar   
➧Date of Notification-06.01.1989
➧Area (In Km2)- 885 (Core 705 & Buffer 180)
➧Type- Islands    
➧Location- Southern most islands of Andaman And Nicobar (A&N Islands).
➧Key Fauna- Saltwater Crocodile

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