Agro climatic regions of india - Geography for You

Agro climatic regions of india

India is a country of great geographical diversity. The variations in its terrain, temperature, rainfall and soils have closely influenced the cropping patterns and other agricultural activities.

For the planning and development of agriculture, the Planning Commission and the National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA) have divided the country into 15 agro-climatic regions. In the delineation of these agro-climatic regions, the physical attributes of the region and socioeconomic char­acteristics have been taken into consideration.

I. Western Himalayan Region: Its covered Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and the hill region of Uttarakhand.

Climates- Average temperature in July ranges between 5°C and 30 °C, while in January it ranges between 5 °C and -5 °C. Mean annual rainfall varies between 75 cm to 150 cm; in Ladakh, however, it is less than 30 cm.
There is alluvial soil in the valleys of Kashmir, Kullu and Dun, and brown soil in the hills.

Crops- The valley floors grow rice, while the hilly tracts grow maize in the kharif season. Winter crops are barley, oats, and wheat. The region supports horticulture, especially apple orchards and other temperate fruits such as peaches, apricot, pears, cherry, almond, litchis, walnut, etc. Saffron is grown in this region.
The high altitude alpine pastures, locally known as ‘dhoks’ or ‘margs’, are used by the Gujjars, Bakarwals and Gaddis to rear their sheep, goats, cattle and horses. The economy is largely agrarian.

II. Eastern Himalayan Region: Arunachal Pradesh, the hills of Assam, Sikkim, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura, and the Darjeeling district of West Bengal.

Climates- Temperature variation is between 25 °C and 30 °C in July and between 10 °C and 20 °C in January. Average rainfall is between 200-400 cm.

Crops- The main crops are rice, maize, potato, tea. There are orchards of pineapple, litchi, oranges and lime.


III. Lower Gangetic Plain Region: West Bengal (except the hilly areas), eastern Bihar and the Brahmaputra valley lie in this region.

Climates- Average annual rainfall lies between 100 cm-200 cm. Temperature in July varies from 26 °C to 41 °C and for January from 9 °C to 24 °C.

Crops- Rice is the main crop which at times yields three successive crops (Aman, Aus and Boro) in a year. Jute, maize, potato, and pulses are other important crops. Planning strategies include improvement in rice farming, horticulture (banana, mango and citrus fruits), pisciculture, poultry, livestock, forage production and seed supply.

IV. Middle Gangetic Plain Region: The Middle Gangetic Plain region includes large parts of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

Climates- The average temperature in July varies from 26 °C to 41 °C and that of January 9 °C to 24 °C average annual rainfall is between 100 cm and 200 cm.

Crops- Rice, maize, millets in kharif, wheat, gram, barley, peas, mustard and potato in rabi are important crops.

V. Upper Gangetic Plains Region: In the Upper Gangetic Plains region come the central and western parts of Uttar Pradesh and the Hardwar and Udham Nagar districts of Uttarakhand.

Climates- The climate is sub-humid continental with temperature in July between 26 °C to 41 °C and temperature in January between 7 °C to 23 °C. Average annual rainfall is between 75 cm-150 cm.


Crops- This is an intensive agricultural region wherein wheat, rice, sugarcane, millets, maize, gram, barley, oilseeds, pulses and cotton are the main crops.

VI. Trans-Ganga Plains Region: This region (also called the Satluj-Yamuna Plains) extends over Punjab, Haryana, Chandigarh, Delhi and the Ganganagar district of Rajasthan.

Climates- Semi- arid characteristics prevail over the region, with July’s mean monthly temperature between 25 °C and 40 °C and that of January between 10 °C and 20 °C. The average annual rainfall varies between 65 cm and 125 cm.

Crops- Important crops include wheat, sugarcane, cotton, rice, gram, maize, millets, pulses and oilseeds etc.

VII. Eastern Plateau and Hills: This region includes the Chhotanagpur Plateau, extending over Jharkhand, Orissa, Chhattisgarh and Dandakaranya.

Climates- The region enjoys 26 °C to 34 °C of temperature in July, 10 °C to 27 °C in January and 80 cm-150 cm of annual rainfall.

Crops- Rainfed agriculture is practised growing crops like rice, millets, maize, oilseeds, ragi, gram and potato.

VIII. Central Plateau and Hills: The region is spread over Bundelkhand, Baghelkhand, Bhander Plateau, Malwa Plateau, and Vindhyachal Hills.

Climates- Semi-arid climatic conditions prevail over the region with temperature in July 26 °C to 40 °C, in January 7 °C to 24 °C and average annual rainfall from 50 cm-100 cm.

Crops- There is scarcity of water. Crops grown are millets, wheat, gram, oilseeds, cotton and sunflower.

IX. Western Plateau and Hills: Comprising southern part of Malwa plateau and Deccan plateau (Maharashtra).

Climates- July temperature between 24 °C and 41 °C, January temperature between 6 °C and 23 °C and average annual rainfall of 25 cm-75 cm.

Crops- Wheat, gram, millets, cotton, pulses, groundnut, and oilseeds are the main crops in the rain-fed areas, while in the irrigated areas, sugarcane, rice, and wheat, are cultivated. Also grown are oranges, grapes and bananas.

X. Southern Plateau and Hills: This region falls in interior Deccan and includes parts of southern Maharashtra, the greater parts of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu uplands from Adilabad District in the north to Madurai District in the south.

Climates- The mean monthly temperature of July varies between 25 °C and 40 °C, and the mean January temperature is between 10 °C and 20 °C. Annual rainfall is between 50 cm and 100 cm.

Crops- It is an area of dry-zone agriculture where millets, oilseeds, and pulses are grown. Coffee, tea, cardamom and spices are grown along the hilly slopes of Karnataka plateau.

XI. Eastern Coastal Plains and Hills: In this region are the Coromandal and northern Circar coasts of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa.

Climates- The mean July temperature ranges between 25 °C and 35 °C and the mean January temperature varies between 20 °C and 30 °C. The mean annual rainfall ~ varies between 75 cm and 150 cm.

Crops- The soils are alluvial, loam and clay and are troubled by the problem of alkalinity. Main crops include rice, jute, tobacco, sugarcane, maize, millets, groundnut and oilseeds.

XII. Western Coastal Plains and Ghats: Extending over the Malabar and Konkan coastal plains and the Sahyadris.

Climates- The region is humid with the mean July temperature varying between 25 °C and 30 °C and mean January temperatures between 18 °C and 30 °C. The mean annual rainfall is more than 200 cm.

Crops- The soils are laterite and coastal alluvial. Rice, coconut, oilseeds, sugarcane, millets, pulses and cotton are the main crops.

XIII. Gujarat Plains and Hills: This region includes the hills and plains of Kathiawar, and the fertile valleys of Mahi and Sabarmati rivers.

Climates- It is an arid and semi-arid region with the mean July temperature reading 30 °C and that of January about 25 °C. The mean annual rainfall varies between 50 cm and 100 cm.

Crops- Groundnut, cotton, rice, millets, oilseeds, wheat and tobacco are the main crops. It is an important oilseed producing region.

XIV. Western Dry Region: Extending over Rajasthan, West of the Aravallis.

Climates- This region has an erratic rainfall of an annual average of less than 25 cm. The desert climate further causes high evaporation and contrasting temperatures—28 °C to 45 °C in June and 5 °C to 22 °C in January.

Crops- Bajra, jowar, and moth are main crops of kharif and wheat and gram in rabi. Livestock contributes greatly in desert ecology.

XV. Island Region: The island region includes Andaman-Nicobar and Lakshadweep.

Climates- Which have typically equatorial climate (annual rainfall less than 300 cm; the mean July and January temperature of Port Blair being 30 °C and 25 °C respectively). The soils vary from sandy along the coast to clayey loam in valleys and lower slopes.

Crops- The main crops are rice, maize, millets, pulses, arecanut, turmeric and cassava.

Data found from-


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